Aboard On or in the boat
Anchor A device used to hold a boat to the sea bottom
Aft At, near or towards the stern.
Apparent Wind The wind that flows over a moving boat, which is a result of the
"true wind" affected by the movement of the boat.
Appendage An underwater fin such as a centerboard dagger board, t\leeboard or
Astern Behind the boat
Backing Pushing out a sail so that the wind fills it from the opposite side.
Used to slow a boat or turn the bow away away from the wind when in irons; back winding
a sail backwinds with the wind funneling on the wrong side.
Bailer A device used to remove water from the boat. A bailer is required
equipment for a Sabot.
Batten Thin fiberglass or wood slats that are inserted in the leech (outside) of
the sail for added support.
Beam Maximum width of a boat; beam reach sailing at approximately
90 degrees to the wind with the wind coming from abeam and the sails eased about half way.
Beat Advance to windward on alternate tacks; beating to sail to
windward, close-hauled, tacking to make way to windward.
Bitter end End of a line.
Block A pulley that is encased in its own housing. A block will help to add
purchase when pulling on a line. It is important to use the correct size line with the
blocks on your boat.
Bolt rope Sewn around luff and foot of sails to give added strength to sail
where it attaches to mast or boom.
Boom Horizontal spar that supports the foot (bottom) of the sail. Named for the
sound it makes when it hits someones head.
Boom Vang A line that runs from the boom to the base of the mast. The vang helps
keep the boom down and tighten the back (leech) of the sail.
Bow The forward part of a boat, the pointy end.
Bow Line Also known as a painter. The bow line is used to tie the boat to the
dock or to a tow line. Minimum 10 foot bowline is required equipment. Best if at least
¼" in diameter.
Broad Reach Sailing with the wind coming over the rear corner of the boat
(quarter), or with the bow approximately 120-160 degrees from the source (eye) of the
By-the-lee Running with the wind on the same side as the boom, increasing the
possibility of an accidental jibe.
Burgee A flag, often triangular, that serves as the unique emblem for each yacht
Capsize A boat turned over on its side or upside down (turtled).
Cast off To untie a line and let it go, or remove a line from a cleat and let it
Catamaran A boat with two parallel hulls.
Centerboard A thin, wide blade going down through the bottom of the hull
in the center of the boat. This blade helps to keep the boat from going sideways in the
water. It serves the same purpose as a leeboard or a dagger board.
Center of Effort Center of sail area, the focal point of the forces generated by
the sail area.
Center of lateral resistance Center of underwater hull profile, the focal point
of the forces generated by the underwater foils.
Cleat A fitting where a line can be secured.
Clew The aft lower corner of the sail is the clew. It is where the foot
and the leech of the sail meet.
Close-hauled Sailing as close to the wind as possible.
Close reach Sailing with the wind forward of the beam, or with the bow
approximately 60 degrees from the eye of the wind.
Clove Hitch Similar to two half hitch knot. Most often used to hang fenders over
side of boat for protection.
Course The direction a boat is steered to reach a destination; or the compass
heading; or the angle a boat is sailing relative to the wind.
Crew The people who help the helmsperson sail a boat.
Cockpit Open part of boat.
Cunningham A control line used to tension the forward edge (luff) of a
sail, similar to a downhaul.
Dagger board Foil raised and lowered vertically used to reduce leeway, different
from centerboard which is pivoted instead of raised.
Dinghy An open boat, or one partially decked over without a cabin.
Dolly A lightweight trailer that is used to move boats from their storage rack
to the launch dock.
Duct Tape A heavy duty, usually gray tape that will fix almost anything at least
temporarily. You can never have enough.
Ease To slack a line or sail, ie. To "sheet" out.
Eye of the Wind From the source of the wind; directly into the direction from
which the wind is blowing from, the no-sail-zone.
Fairlead Block or fitting used to change the direction of a running line such a
Feathering Sailing upwind so close to the wind that the forward edge of the sail
is stalling or luffing, slightly thus reducing the power generated by the sail and the
angle of heel without stalling completely.
Fenders Cushions to reduce the chafe between a boat and the dock or other boats
Fiberglass Most modern boats are made of fiberglass. It is a woven material
impregnated with a liquid resin that is very stiff when the resin dries.
Figure 8 knot Stopper knot in the shape of an "8" used for the end of
a line to prevent it from passing through a fairlead or eye.
Fleet For racing purposes, sailors are grouped in fleets according to
experience. The Sabot "A" fleet is the more advanced group, with B, C and C3
fleets being progressively more basic.
Flying Junior The FJ is a two person boat. It is a primary junior training
boat, often used in high school sailing events.
Foot The bottom edge of the sail between the tack (front corner) and the
clew (back corner).
Forestay Forward support of mast, usually wire lead from bow to mast, part
of the standing rigging.
Give way The boat which must alter course to avoid another boat, the
burdened boat in the Rules of the Road
Gooseneck A hinged fitting on the mast that connects the mast to the boom.
Grommet A metal ring in a sail that allows lines to be connected through or to
the sail. Both the clew and the tack have grommets.
Gudgeon A "U" shaped fitting on the back of a boat used to connect the
rudder to the hull. Most sailing dinghies have two gudgeons.
Halyards Lines that are attached to the head of a sail and used to hoist
sails up the mast.
Head The top of the sail.
Header A wind direction change "shift" that brings the wind closer to
Heading The direction the boat is travelling at any given moment.
Head Up Turn the bow of the boat toward the wind.
Heel To lean a boat over, generally away from the wind.
Helm 1) the tiller; 2) the tendency of a boat to turn toward the wind (weather
helm) or away from the wind (lee helm)
Helmsperson The person who steers a boat, ie. skipper
Hiking Out The action of hanging over the side of the boat in order to keep the
boat flat on the water.
Hiking Boots Special boots made of thick rubber that protect and support a
sailors ankles when using the hiking strap to hike out.
Hiking Strap A strap, usually stiff, sometimes padded for comfort,
attached to the bottom of the cockpit under which a sailor places his/her feet in order to
hold the sailor in the boat while hiking out.
Hull The actual body of the boat.
INSA International Naples Sabot Association. This is the class association for
the Sabot. All Sabot racing fleet members must join.
In irons A boat head to wind with all sails luffing and no maneuverability.
Inspection Port A hole in the hull of the boat that allows the skipper to reach
inside the hull to make repairs, or sponge out water.
Jib The front sail on boats with two or more sails. It is small and triangular
Jibe (Gybe) Turning the boat away from the wind so the stern passes through the
wind and the sail(s) switches sides.
Laser A popular 14 ft. high performance single hand boat. Used in the Olympics
for mens and womens single hand event.
Lee The area sheltered from the wind, downwind; leeward (pronounced
loo-ward) the direction away from the wind, the side of the boat opposite the
Leech The aft edge of the sail. The leech connects the head and the clew of the
Life jacket A jacket type device that provides flotation when sailors are in the
water. A Coast Guard approved Personal Flotation Device (PFD) must be worn by all
Juniors while on the docks or the water. Only the vest type jacket is acceptable.
Luff or Luffing 1) The forward edge of the sail nearest the mast, between the
tack and the head of the sail; 2) when a sail is waving back and forth as the sail is
"eased" out too much or the boat is heading into the wind, the sail is said to
be luffing, like a flag flying in the breeze. 3) when the boat turns its bow toward the
wind the boat is said to be luffing.
Mainsheet The line attached to the boom that controls the Mainsail in and
Mast The vertical spar that supports the sail.
Mast blocks Small pieces of wood or plastic used to support the mast in a
forward or aft position.
Mast Tube A tube on a Sabot that the mast fits into and supports the mast.
One-design Any class of boat that has specific requirements for size and shape
of hulls, sails and equipment to keep them equal, ie. Sabots, FJs and Lasers.
Outhaul A line attached to the clew of the mainsail and used to stretch the sail
out along the boom. The outhaul controls the "depth" of the sail.
Paddle A small board or device used to move the boat in case of emergency or
lack of wind. Paddle is required equipment on Sabots and many small boats.
Pintles The pins on the rudder that are inserted into the gudgeons on the
transom of the boat to connect the rudder to the hull.
Planing When a boat accelerates enough to break loose from its bow wave and ride
on top of the water.
Port Refers to the left side of the boat as well as to which tack a boat
is on. If a boat is on "port tack" the wind is coming over the left side of the
Ratchet Block These are special blocks that rotate in only one direction. They
grip the line passing through the ratchet block, relieving some of the "pull" on
Reach Sail with the wind over the side. i.e A Beam reach is the wind approx. 90
degrees from the bow, broad reach 130-170 degrees from the bow, or close reach with the
wind 55-80 from the bow.
Rudder The movable, underwater blade on the transom of the boat used for
Run Sail downwind, with the wind aft or nearly so, ie. Sailing with the
Sabot A popular one person sailing dinghy used mainly in Southern
California. They are 8 ft. long and weigh about 100 lbs.
Sail The part of the boats equipment which is usually made from cloth and
which is attached to the mast and is the boats primary reason for movement.
Sailing Instructions At each regatta, these are made available to all
competitors. They tell the sailors important information about the schedule for the day,
starting order, courses to be sailed, etc.
Sea breeze Wind from the ocean caused by warm air rising over the land and the
cool ocean wind replacing it.
Shackle A U shaped metal ring with a pin to close the "U". It is used
to connect objects together, such as connecting the jib halyard to the head (top) of the
Sheets All lines on a boat which are used to control the in and out motion of
S-Hook A stainless steel "S" shaped hook used on the end of many
control lines that allows for quick hook up and disconnect.
Shrouds Wires that hold the mast to the sides of the boat and support the
power of the sails. Part of the standing rigging.
Skipper The person in charge of the boat, usually the person steering the boat.
Skippers Meeting All regattas begin with a Skippers Meeting. The meeting reviews
the Sailing Instructions, special rules and to answer questions. Check Notice of
Race (NOR) or Sailing Instructions to determine the time and place.
Stand on To hold course, the privileged boat in the Rules of the Road.
Starboard Refers to the right side of the boat. A boat is on a "starboard
tack" when the wind is on its starboard side (coming over the right side of the
Stern Aft (back) end of a boat.
Stopper knot A knot on the end of a line to prevent it from passing
through a block, like the Figure 8 knot.
Tack 1) If a boats bow passes through the eye of the wind,
then it is said to be tacking. 2) The direction the boat is sailing (see starboard and
port). 3) The lower front corner of the sail where the luff and the foot of the sail meet.
Telltales Small lengths of lightweight material attached to the sail near
the luff or batten pockets of main sail to indicate the airflow over the sail.
Thwart A structural board in the center of a Sabot. Juniors should sit next to
the thwart when sailing.
Tiller The long piece of wood that is connected to the top of the rudder.
It changes the boats direction when moved from side to side.
Tiller Extension A hinged extension attached to the tiller that allows the
skipper to steer the boat while sitting forward or hiking out. This is standard equipment
for all boats in the program.
Transom The very back edge of the boat is called the transom. It is where
the name of the boat is often painted.
Traveler A line or track that controls sideways movement of the boom and
Trim 1) Pulling or "sheeting" in a sail. 2) Fore and aft balance
of a boat or 3) can be used to refer to the adjustment of sails to take the best advantage
of the wind.
True wind The speed and direction of the wind felt by a stationary object.
Turtle, turn turtle When a vessel is capsized and completely inverted so that
its hull is above the water and its mast is submerged.
US SAILING The United States Sailing Association. All sailors should belong to
this organization. US Sailing sponsors all Junior National Sailing Championship events.
Weather Toward the wind.
Windward The general direction the wind is coming from.